Measurand’s SAAV can be installed in casings with internal diameters (IDs) from 47 mm to 100 mm. For non-standard sized casings, the SAAV compression clamp must be used to finish the installation. To install SAAV with the compression clamp, the following steps should be followed.
NOTE: For installations in standard sized casings with outer diameters (ODs) 70 mm or 85 mm, the SAAV Casing Cap should be used to finish the installation. Detailed instructions for installing SAAV with the Casing Cap can be found in Installing SAAV Into Existing Inclinometer Casing.
Figure 1: Compression Clamp Kit
The following table outlines the tools and equipment required to install an SAAV with the Compression Clamp installation kit.
|Pry Bar||Box Cutter||9/16” socket||Microsoft Windows Laptop computer with latest Measurand software|
Compression Clamp assembly *
0.734” Washer *
|Hammer||Wire Cutters||1 1/4” Long 3/8”- 24 Hex Bolt *||Measurand Interface (e.g. SAA Field Power Unit)|
3” long Bronze Compression Bolt 1/4-20 *
1/2” Long 1/4”-20 Bronze Hex Bolt *
|Dust Mask *|
|Pliers||Adjustable Wrench||3/8”-24 Nylon-Insert Locknut *|
SAA X-Mark Protractor *
|Reel stands and Pole||Ratchet *||Extension Coupler *||7/16” Deep Socket *||6.5 mm (1/4") drill bit||Hack saw or key hole saw||Small flat-headed screwdriver|
* Starred items are included in the Compression Clamp installation kit
NOTE - Measurand ShapeArrays are shipped on wooden reels with wooden facets stapled to the outside. A pry bar, hammer, and pliers will be required to remove the facets from the reel prior to following the steps below.
The following video provides an overview of the installation process. More detailed information about each step of the installation process is provided below the video.
Step 1 - Insert SAAV into the Borehole
Place a set of reel stands approximately 1 m to 1.5 m away from the borehole. Place a 2" steel pole through the middle of the reel and use it to lift the reel onto the stands. Ensure that the reel is oriented such that the SAAV will be unreeled into the borehole from the top of the reel. Cut the zip ties holding the SAAV's eye bolt end to the reel with a box cutter or wire cutters. Unreel the SAAV and insert it into the borehole. Ensure that segments from the reel enter the casing vertically and avoid touching the sides at the top of the casing. Do not detach the springbox assembly from the reel at this point.
Figure 2: Pace the reel 1 m to 1.5 m (3' to 5') from the borehole and unreel the SAAV from the top of the reel into the borehole
NOTE: For casings with a small ID, such as 47 mm ID casing, the SAAV must be inserted such that the Springbox attachment and the Extension Tube that will be connected to it are square to the casing’s circumference, avoiding any inclinometer grooves in the casing.
Figure 3: For casings with small IDs, ensure the springbox and fiberglass extension tube are square to the casing's circumference
Step 2 – Attach Extension Tubes to the Springbox Assembly
With the springbox assembly still attached to the SAAV reel, detach the Extension Tubes from the reel by cutting their zip ties with a box cutter or wire cutters. Attach an Extension Tube to the Springbox assembly using the supplied 1 1/4” Long 3/8”- 24 Hex Bolt and 3/8”-24 Nylon-Insert Locknut.
WARNING: Ensure that the Extension Tube is attached to the Springbox assembly such that the X-mark on the tubing aligns with the X-mark on the Springbox.
Figure 4: Use the supplied hardware to attach the Extension Tube (green) to the Springbox assembly (grey)
If more than one Extension Tube is required, use the included coupler and hardware to attach them, as shown in the figure below.
Figure 5: Attaching additional extensions - (A) Extension Tubes (grey), (B) Coupler (green), (C) hardware for connecting tubes, and (D) Assembled Extension Tubes
Once your extension tubes have been attached, the zip ties holding the springbox assembly and cabling can be cut to detach them from the SAAV reel. Insertion into the borehole can then be completed.
NOTE: As extension rods are added to the instrument, the cabling should be secured along their length using tape to prevent loose cabling in the casing from interfering with the settling process.
Step 3 - Settle the SAAV into the Inclinometer Casing
Once the SAAV is resting on the bottom of the borehole, actions need to be taken to ensure it is properly settled in place. If the instrument is not properly settled in place prior to compressing it, then undesirable displacements will be reported by the instrument as it settles into place naturally. Settlement of the instrument within the casing is not reflective of movement of the casing or the surrounding environment.
To facilitate settling the instrument into place, the SAAV Installation Verification tool included in our SAARecorder software must be used. This tool will display a point graph where each point represents the tilt of a segment relative to the medial axis of the instrument's installed shape. More information on using this tool is available in the Verifying your SAAV Installation guide. Once you have your computer connected to the ShapeArray with the SAARecorder application, open the SAAV Installation Verification tool from the Diagnostics menu and take the following actions that are sometimes referred to as "pumping".
WARNING: If you are installing a ShapeArray in Low Power Mode for use with certain low power data loggers, then you will need to be using an SAAFPU interface with at least revision R.4B or an SAA232 interface with revision R.2B. Older interfaces are NOT supported. While the SAAV Installation Verification diagnostic is open, the instrument will temporarily be placed in regular power mode. When the SAAV Installation Verification window is closed, the instrument will automatically be returned to Low Power mode. Do NOT disconnect the ShapeArray from the computer without closing the window or the instrument could be left in regular power mode.
Lift the ShapeArray until it is hanging in the casing with one segment touching the bottom. When the last segment is resting on the bottom of the casing, the angle reported by the SAAV Installation Verification tool will be around 4° to 6°. The tilts of the segments above the last segment should be close to 0°. If there are bends in the borehole, the angle will increase to 1° or 2°. You should see a graph similar to what is shown in the figure below in the SAAV Installation Verification tool when the instrument has been lifted sufficiently.
Figure 6: The SAAV Installation Verification tool in SAARecorder when the SAAV has been lifted sufficiently
Once you have lifted the SAAV enough to have only the last segment resting on the bottom of the casing, drop the ShapeArray such that it falls straight into the casing. The array will drop into the hole with some friction from the joints resisting the movement. Manually apply some downward pressure to the SAAV (approximately 5 lbs) in order to compress it within the conduit, record the value for Compression reported in the SAAV Installation Verification tool, and collect sample data from SAARecorder.
The SAAV should be lifted and dropped repeatedly in this manner until three sequential readings of Compression do not change by more than 1 mm.
WARNING: If you are using an older version of SAARecorder, you may see a green status light and other details listed in the window. In this version of the verification utility, the Average Tilt and green status light may be attained with fewer lift and drop operations; however, lifting and dropping the array should continue until the Actual Compression ceases to change by more than 1 mm on three consecutive drops.
NOTE: Save the recorded data files and details about the number of lift and drops were required to achieve proper compression. These files and details could be helpful in troubleshooting any issues encountered in the future.
Once this is done, you will be ready to measure the azimuth offset for the X-mark.
Step 4 - Measure Azimuth Offset with the X-Mark Protractor
The SAA X-Mark Protractor consists of two pieces: a square protractor with directional arrows and a clear plastic disk with an X-Line marked on it. Place the square protractor around the Extension Tube at the top of the ShapeArray. Rotate the square protractor until the arrows are pointed to one of the following:
- The expected direction of movement
- Other job site datum
Place the clear disk marker with the X-Line around the Extension Tube and on top of the square protractor so that the X-Line is aligned with X-Mark on the Extension Tube. The X-line, the X-Mark on the Springbox Assembly, and the X-mark on the Extension Tube should now all be aligned. Make note of the angle at the X-Line. This will be used in Measurand software when specifying the azimuth offset angle of the ShapeArray.
Figure 7: Align square protractor with desired direction (left) and then align clear plastic disk with X-mark to get azimuth offset (right)
Step 5 - Disassemble the Compression Clamp Assembly
Using the included ratchet and 7/16" Deep Socket, remove the 3” long Bronze Compression Bolt 1/4-20 that holding the Compression Clamp and the Extension Tube Anchor together.
Figure 8: Compression Clamp Assembly before (left) and after disassembly (right)
Step 6 – Mark and Drill Holes in Casing
Place the Compression Clamp on top of the casing with the metal side on the outside of the casing.
NOTE: Ensure the Compression Clamp is oriented along the outside circumference of the casing. You must avoid any inclinometer grooves in the casing. Place the Compression Clamp such that it is centered between any inclinometer grooves.
Figure 9: Mark the casing by placing the compression clamp over it and marking through the hole
Mark the casing through the hole in the Compression Clamp with a thin marker or a screw. Remove the Compression Clamp and drill a hole in the casing where it was marked with a 6.5 mm (1/4") drill bit.
WARNING: Be very careful not to drop the Compression Clamp into the casing!
Step 7 – Attach the Compression Clamp to the Casing
Place the Compression Clamp onto the casing with the metal side on the inside of the casing. Using the included rachet, 7/16" Deep Socket, and 1/2” Long 1/4”-20 Bronze Hex Bolt, secure the Compression Clamp into place. Depending on the thickness of the casing, the screw may be too long. In this case, the 0.734” washers included in the kit should be used to ensure the screw does not protrude beyond the Compression Clamp body.
Figure 10: Attach compression clamp to the casing with supplied hardware
Step 8 - Cut the Fiberglass Extension Tube and Apply Final Compression
Set the Extension Tube Anchor on its short edge on top of the Compression Clamp. While applying a light amount of force on the Extension Tube (approximately 5 kg), mark a line along the anchor on the tube.
WARNING: Be very careful not to drop the Extension Tube Anchor into the casing!
Figure 11: Mark the Extension Tube by laying the anchor on the Compression Clamp along its short side
If any ShapeArray cable has been taped to the extension rod near the marked line, ensure that the tape is removed and the ShapeArray cable is well away from the marked line. With a hack saw or key hole saw, cut the fibreglass Extension Tube along the marked line. Insert the Extension Tube Anchor into the top of the Extension Tube.
NOTE: When cutting fibreglass, be sure to use the proper personal protective equipment (PPE), including goggles and dust mask. Please refer to the SAAV Manual for a full description of PPE.
Compress the Extension Tube until you can screw the Extension Tube Anchor to the Compression Clamp with the included ratchet, 7/16" Deep Socket, and 3” long Bronze Compression Bolt 1/4-20.
WARNING: Do not use power tools to secure the bolt. This can damage the threads and/or the plate. Use the supplied ratchet and deep socket to secure the Extension Tube Anchor to the Compression Clamp.
Figure 12: Apply final compression by screwing the extension tube anchor into the compression clamp
NOTE: For casing with a small ID, such as 47 mm ID casing, the Extension Tube Anchor will need to be modified. The washer will need to be removed, leaving only the bolt, spacer, and lock nut, before inserting it into the Extension Tube and applying final compression.
Figure 13: For casings with smaller IDs, the Extension Tube Anchor's washer (A) will need to be removed