This guide will walk you through installing SAAV in existing standard sized (70 mm or 85 mm outer diameter) inclinometer casing with the provided SAAV casing cap.
NOTE: For installation in non-standard sized casings from 47 mm to 100 mm internal diameter, please refer to the Installing SAAV with the Compression Clamp guide in our support web site.
Measurand's SAAV Casing Cap provides a simple, clean, and efficient way to complete an SAAV installation. The SAAV Casing Cap consists of a weather-resistant enclosure with two interchangeable collars to fit the two most common inclinometer casing sizes.
NOTE: More information about installing SAAV can be found in the SAAV Manual.
Figure 1: SAAV Casing Cap Install Kit: (goggles, dust mask, and documentation not pictured)
NOTE: Measurand highly recommends that users perform a complete diagnostics test on their ShapeArray prior to installation to ensure the instrument is working properly. The .TXT report file generated should be included with the installation log for record keeping purposes. A complete diagnostic report from the time of installation could be required to advance warranty claims should an issue occur in the future.
The following table outlines the tools and equipment required to install an SAAV with the Casing Cap installation kit into existing inclinometer casing.
|Pry bar||Reel Stands and 2" Steel Pole||Extension Coupler *||#3 Phillips Drive Bit *|
|Hammer||Box Cutter||Microsoft Windows Laptop Computer with latest Measurand Software||Markers|
|Pliers||Wire Cutter||Measurand Interface (e.g. SAA Field Power Unit)||Hack saw or Key Hole Saw|
|Phillips Screwdriver||Adjustable Wrenches||SAA X-Mark Protractor *||Goggles *|
|Ratchet *||9/16" Socket||Electric Drill||Dust Mask *|
|7/16" Deep Socket *||(Up to 3) 1 1/4” Long 3/8”- 24 Hex Bolt *||13/64" Drill Bit||Small Flat-headed Screwdriver|
|3" Bronze Compression bolt 1/4-20 *||(Up to 3) 3/8”-24 Nylon-Insert Locknut *||(4) 3/4” Long 1/4-20 Self Tapping Cap Screws *||Casing Cap Assembly *|
* Starred items are included in the Casing Cap installation kit
The SAAV Casing Cap Installation kit includes the starred items in the table above. It also includes the Compression Clamp assembly and some extra hardware required for installing SAAV into non-standard sized casings from 47 mm ID to 100 mm ID. The extra hardware that is not used with the casing cap installation is as follows:
- (1) Compression Clamp Assembly
- (2) 0.734” Washer
- (1) 1/2” Long 1/4”-20 Bronze Hex Bolt
NOTE - Measurand ShapeArrays are shipped on wooden reels with wooden facets stapled to the outside. A pry bar, hammer, and pliers will be required to remove the facets from the reel prior to following the steps below.
The following video provides an overview of the installation process with a casing cap. Each step in the installation process is described in more detail below the video.
Step 1 - Place the Casing Cap on the Inclinometer Casing
Ensure you have the proper sized collar connected to the Casing Cap assembly. Instructions for replacing the collar on the Casing Cap assembly can be found in the "Changing the Collar on the SAAV Install Kit's Weather-Resistant Enclosure" guide. Remove the cover of the Casing Cap by removing the screws in the four corners with a Phillips screwdriver.
Remove the Extension Tube Anchor from inside of the Casing Cap by removing the 3” long Bronze Compression Bolt 1/4-20 holding it in place. This will require the included ratchet and 7/16” deep socket. Place the disassembled Casing Cap onto the inclinometer casing.
NOTE: Do not secure the casing cap to the casing at this point as it will be removed later in the process when settling the instrument into the casing.
Step 2 - Insert SAAV Into the Borehole
Place a set of reel stands approximately 1 m to 1.5 m away from the borehole. Place a 2" steel pole through the middle of the reel and use it to lift the reel onto the stands. Ensure that the reel is oriented such that the SAAV will be unreeled into the borehole from the top of the reel. Cut the zip ties holding the SAAV's eye bolt end to the reel with a box cutter or wire cutters. Insert the SAAV into the borehole through the Casing Cap. Do not detach the springbox assembly from the reel at this point.
Figure 2: Insert the SAAV into the borehole by unreeling it from the top of the reel into the Casing Cap
Step 3 - Attach Extension Tubes to the Springbox Assembly
With the springbox assembly still attached to the SAAV reel, detach the Extension Tubes from the reel by cutting their zip ties with a box cutter or wire cutters. Attach an Extension Tube to the Springbox assembly using the supplied 1 1/4” Long 3/8”- 24 Hex Bolt and 3/8”-24 Nylon-Insert Locknut.
WARNING: Ensure that the Extension Tube is attached to the Springbox assembly such that the X-mark on the tubing aligns with the X-mark on the Springbox.
Figure 3: Attach the Extension Tube (green) to the Springbox assembly (grey) with the supplied hardware while the Springbox assembly is still attached to the reel
If more than one Extension Tube is required, use the included extension coupler and hardware to attach them, as shown in the figure below. The SAAV Cleat accessory can be used to support the ShapeArray in the casing while extensions tubes are added.
Figure 4: Attaching additional extensions - (A) Extension Tubes (grey), (B) Coupler (green), (C) hardware for connecting tubes, and (D) Assembled Extension Tubes.
Once your extension tubes have been attached, the zip ties holding the springbox assembly and cabling can be cut to detach them from the SAAV reel. Insertion into the borehole can then be completed.
NOTE: As extension rods are added to the instrument, the cabling should be secured along their length using tape to prevent loose cabling in the casing from interfering with the settling process.
Step 4 - Settle the SAAV into the Inclinometer Casing
Once the SAAV is resting on the bottom of the borehole, actions need to be taken to ensure it is properly settled in place. If the instrument is not properly settled in place prior to compressing it, then undesirable displacements will be reported by the instrument as it settles into place naturally. Settlement of the instrument within the casing is not reflective of movement of the casing or the surrounding environment.
To facilitate settling the instrument into place, the SAAV Installation Verification tool included in our SAARecorder software must be used. This tool will display a point graph where each point represents the tilt of a segment relative to the medial axis of the instrument's installed shape. More information on using this tool is available in the Verifying your SAAV Installation guide. Once you have your computer connected to the ShapeArray with the SAARecorder application, open the SAAV Installation Verification tool from the Diagnostics menu and take the following actions that are sometimes referred to as "pumping".
WARNING: If you are installing a ShapeArray in Low Power Mode for use with certain low power data loggers, then you will need to be using an SAAFPU interface with at least revision R.4B or an SAA232 interface with revision R.2B. Older interfaces are NOT supported. While the SAAV Installation Verification diagnostic is open, the instrument will temporarily be placed in regular power mode. When the SAAV Installation Verification window is closed, the instrument will automatically be returned to Low Power mode. Do NOT disconnect the ShapeArray from the computer without closing the window or the instrument could be left in regular power mode.
Lift the casing cap off of the casing and extension rods and set it aside with enough slack cable to avoid interfering with the settling process. Lift the ShapeArray until it is hanging in the casing with one segment touching the bottom. When the last segment is resting on the bottom of the casing, the angle reported by the SAAV Installation Verification tool will be around 4° to 6°. The tilts of the segments above the last segment should be close to 0°. If there are bends in the borehole, the angle will increase to 1° or 2°. You should see a graph similar to what is shown in the figure below in the SAAV Installation Verification tool when the instrument has been lifted sufficiently.
Figure 5: The SAAV Installation Verification tool in SAARecorder when the SAAV has been lifted sufficiently
Once you have lifted the SAAV enough to have only the last segment resting on the bottom of the casing, drop the ShapeArray such that it falls straight into the casing. The array will drop into the hole with some friction from the joints resisting the movement. Manually apply some downward pressure to the SAAV (approximately 5 lbs) in order to compress it within the conduit, record the value for Compression reported in the SAAV Installation Verification tool, and collect sample data from SAARecorder.
The SAAV should be lifted and dropped repeatedly in this manner until three sequential readings of Compression do not change by more than 1 mm. This should take approximately 10 to 15 lift and drops (pumps).
WARNING: If you are using an older version of SAARecorder, you may see a green status light and other details listed in the window. In this version of the verification utility, the Average Tilt and green status light may be attained with fewer lift and drop operations; however, lifting and dropping the array should continue until the Actual Compression ceases to change by more than 1 mm on three consecutive drops.
NOTE: Save the recorded data files and details about the number of lift and drops were required to achieve proper compression. These files and details could be helpful in troubleshooting any issues encountered in the future.
Once this is done, replace the casing cap over the extension rods onto the top of the casing. You are now ready to measure the azimuth offset for the X-mark.
Step 5 - Measure the Azimuth Offset
The SAA X-Mark Protractor consists of two pieces: a square protractor with directional arrows and a clear plastic disk with an X-Line marked on it. Place the square protractor around the Extension Tube at the top of the ShapeArray. Rotate the square protractor until the arrows are pointed to one of the following:
- The expected direction of movement
- Other job site datum
Place the clear disk marker with the X-Line around the Extension Tube and on top of the square protractor so that the X-Line is aligned with X-Mark on the Extension Tube. The X-line, the X-Mark on the Springbox Assembly, and the X-mark on the Extension Tube should now all be aligned. Make note of the angle at the X-Line. This will be used in Measurand software when specifying the azimuth offset angle of the ShapeArray.
Figure 6: Align square protractor with desired direction (left) and then align clear plastic disk with X-mark to get azimuth offset angle (right)
Step 6 - Securing the Casing Cap to the Inclinometer Casing
Rotate the SAAV Casing Cap so that the Extension Tube Anchor will be directly above the Extension Tube when screwed into place with the Casing Cap assembly. The Extension Tube should be as level as possible when making the connection to the Casing Cap. Before securing the Casing Cap, make sure that the collar screws are not aligned with the grooves in the inclinometer casing. Hand-tighten three of the four self-tapping screws into the collar to hold the casing cap in place temporarily. With an electric drill, drill through the inclinometer casing through the empty hole in the collar where the fourth screw would be placed.
NOTE: Any drill bit between 3/16” (4.80 mm) and 7/32” (5.50 mm) can be used. Measurand recommends 13/64” (5.10 mm).
Figure 7: Securing the casing cap to the casing with the four self-tapping screws into the collar
Screw the fourth self-tapping screw into place through the collar and into the inclinometer casing using the electric drill and the included #3 Phillips Drive bit. Remove each of the remaining self-tapping screws in turn and repeat this process until all four holes have been drilled and all self-tapping screws are in place.
Step 7 - Cut the Extension Tube and Apply Final Compression
Set the Extension Tube Anchor on its short edge inside the Casing Cap. While applying a light amount of force on the Extension Tube (approximately 5 kg), mark a line along the anchor on the tube with a marker, as shown in the figure below.
Figure 8: Use the Extension Tube Anchor to mark the Extension Tube
If any ShapeArray cable has been taped to the extension rod near the marked line, ensure that the tape is removed and the ShapeArray cable is well away from the marked line. Cut the fibreglass Extension Tube along the marked line using a hack saw or keyhole saw. Insert the Extension Tube Anchor into the top of the tube. Compress the Extension Tube until you can screw the bolt into place using the included ratchet and 7/16” Deep Socket.
NOTE: When cutting fibreglass, be sure to use the proper personal protective equipment (PPE), such as the included goggles and dust mask. Please refer to the SAAV Manual for a full description of PPE.
Figure 9: Insert the Extension Tube Anchor into the Extension Tube and compress the tube until the bolt can be screwed into place
Tighten the bolt until the Extension Tube Anchor makes contact with the bottom plate or until the anchor can no longer be moved.
WARNING: Do not use power tools to secure the bolt. This can damage the threads and/or the plate. Use the supplied ratchet and deep socket to secure the Extension Tube Anchor to the Compression Clamp.
Step 8 - Route Cabling and Secure the Casing Cap
Insert the ShapeArray cable into the cable grommet and insert the grommet into cut-out in the side of the Casing Cap. Ensure that approximately 15 cm to 20 cm (6” to 8”) of slack ShapeArray cable is left inside the Casing Cap into the casing for strain relief.
Figure 10: Ensure there is some slack cable in the enclosure for strain relief
Verify that the gasket is in place in the weather-resistant enclosure cover. Place cover on the top of the Casing Cap and secure it with the Phillips screws in each of the four corners. You should secure the cable coming out of the Casing Cap enclosure to the collar or underlying conduit. Zip ties or duct tape can be used for this purpose. You can now route the communication cable to the nearest data acquisition system. Consider using a flexible conduit to protect the communication cable from abrasion or wildlife.
Figure 11: Once the nut on the cable gland is tightened, the installation is complete